Please note that we will be retiring this old site on Tuesday, August 25th, 2015.
At that point, the URL for will bring you to our new site currently hosted at We encourage you to visit the new site now and see a more recent set of updated gene annotations and MANY more Pseudomonas strains.
Pseudomonas Genome Database - Overview

Searching the Database of Genome Annotations

Note: The search engine will return a maximum of 50000 hits. If your search results in more than this number, please refine it by specifying more search terms or reducing the number of genomes and using the 'AND' operator to the left of the drop down boxes that prompt you to select from a list of search fields. You may also retrieve all annotations from our downloads page if you still wish to perform searches involving greater than 50000 hits. If you require assistance with this feature, including retrieving a single large search result, please feel free to contact us.

Simple Keyword Search

Located at the top of the search page, the simple keyword search provides a means to search all annotation fields of all genomes in the database (excluding the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, original September 2000 annotation - we discourage searching this database since it is not updated and so only permit searches of the Sept 2000 annotation in an advanced search). By default, simple keyword searches match anything that contains the text entered, however one can specify that an 'exact' text search is performed by checking the "exact" check box next to the text box. Exact searches allow you to find anything that contains only that word or phrase, with no surrounding text (i.e. find protein names that are exactly named as just outer membrane protein, versus many others that are named outer membrane protein X, outer membrane protein Y, etc...").

Advanced Boolean Search

This search feature allows one to specify which genomes and fields will be searched. It allows you to search more than one field at once using an AND or OR or NOT operator. As with the simple keyword search, an "exact" search can be specified by by checking the box next to the text box .

Note: We also recommend, as a complement to searching the annotations, that you search, using BLAST, for homologs to a protein of interest, to find additional genes/proteins of interest that may have annotations that don't show up in your annotation search (i.e. if you want all homologs of a particular membrane protein, but the particular membrane protein has been named differently by different Pseudomonas Genome Projects). From a BLAST search you can also select genes/proteins of interest for further study, and compare them using the compare feature with other genes/proteins you hold on your clipboard, as described below.

Browse by Function or Subcellular Localization

In addition to the searches listed above, you can browse all genomes by function classification (including Pseudomonas Genome project, TIGRFAM, TIGR roles and sub roles, and COG classifications) or subcellular localization.


Searching the Log of Annotation Updates

The Pseudomonas Genome Database contains a Boolean-searchable log of all updates that have been made to the genome annotation. Fields include names of the participants who have made the submission along with structured details and the dates of the submission and locus ID (e.g. PA number). As in the case of simple and advanced searches of the genome annotations above, the log of updates can be browsed and ordered by any of the above parameters or searched using the Boolean search interface.

Note: At this time, we are only accepting annotation submissions for Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. For other Pseudomonas genome annotations, please go to their respective genome project web sites in order to check for updates. For example there is the PeerGAD system for some submissions.


Comparison of multiple annotations

1) Adding annotations to clipboard

It is now possible to perform multiple comparisons of annotations returned from a keyword search of annotation fields or a BLAST-based search of protein sequence databases. Click the checkboxes (Fig.1: blue arrow) to the left of the locus ID and then click click on the 'Add to clipboard' button (Fig. 1: red arrow) in order to add annotations to your clipboard . The clipboard will automatically appear after you make your first selection.

Figure 1: Screen shot of the search results page demonstrating how to add annotations to clipboard.

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2) Managing annotations on clipboard

When you are finished selecting annotations, click on the red "Clipboard has X features" link (Fig. 2a: red arrow) to view them all or click on the "drop" button to the left of any previously-selected gene (Fig. 2a: black arrows) to drop it from the clipboard.

The clipboard contains two buttons at the top and bottom (Fig. 2b: blue arrow). The green "Compare" button will bring you to a window showing an adjacent view of all your clipboard genes. The grey "Clear All" button will reset your clipboard by removing all genes from it.

Note: A maximum of 15 annotations can be added to the clipboard at one time.

Figure 2a: Screen shot of the search results page after annotations selected by the user have been added to clipboard.

Figure 2b: View of the user's clipboard containing the previously-selected annotations.

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3) Comparing and performing analysis on selected annotations

After clicking on the "Compare" button, a display of all the selected annotations and images of surrounding genes appears (Figure 3a) and text can be downloaded to a tab-delimited file by clicking the "Download to text file" link (Fig 3a: blue arrow). One can view details about specific surrounding genes by clicking on the image map (Fig. 3: red arrow) which links to individual gene annotations or view less-detailed gene/product/coordinate info by placing the cursor over a gene on the map (Fig. 3a: blue arrow). By clicking the "flip orientation" link (orange arrow) above the graphical image of a gene, the orientation of the genome can be reversed in order to better facilitate comparison of multiple annotations. When the orientation is flipped, it will be indicated in red text under the image. The left-to-right sorting of the annotations can be changed by selecting primary and secondary fields and sort orders from the drop down boxes at the top of the page and then clicking the "sort" button.

Figure 3a: Comparison of multiple annotations.

Multiple alignment of clipboard annotations using ClustalW

Clicking on the "Align" button (Fig. 3b: green arrows) takes all nucleotide or amino acid sequences currently in the sequence row and formats them for multiple alignment using ClustalW (1.83). The slow/accurate alignment setting is used in this analysis with a default CLUSTALW output format. Note: This analysis works best when aligning 12 or fewer sequences. When aligning 13-15 sequences, please expect a significantly longer waiting period, since the number of sequences aligned greatly impacts on the length of time to perform an alignment.

Figure 3b: Performing a multiple alignment of nucleotide or amino acid sequences begins in the clipboard view.

BLAST search against other nucleotide and protein sequences in the database

Clicking on the "BLAST Search" link (Fig. 3: black arrow) below any nucleotide sequence being compared will direct you to a pre-formatted BLAST search page containing the specific sequence. Once there, you have the option of selecting the genome databases you wish to search and also fine-tune the search parameters. You can also specify your own sequences and genomes to search by going to the BLAST search page.

Other improvements include a new interface for viewing and sorting results returned by BLAST search tool. Output from a protein database search can now be viewed as a list of proteins (with gene name and locus ID) along with the details of each alignment (expect-value, bit score, % identity, etc). In addition, the results can be added to the clipboard utility for further analysis/viewing. Output from nucleotide sequence database search is viewable in a list format with links to GBrowse view of each aligned region.